The assembly of 20,000 sequencing reads obtained from shotgun and chromosomespecific libraries of the spiroplasma citri genome yielded 77 chromosomal contigs totaling 1,674 kbp 92% of the 1,820kbp chromosome. The parasitoid gonatopus bartletti reduces presence of. Physical and genetic map of the spiroplasma kunkelii cr23x chromosome ellen l. Spiroplasma citri gii3 contains highly related lowcopynumber plasmids psci1 to 6. A 3yr study was conducted in californias southern san joaquin valley to determine the overwintering survival of the corn leafhopper, dalbulus maidis delong and wolcott, and the mollicute, spiroplasma kunkelii, the causal agent of corn stunt disease. In order to characterize candidate genes potentially involved in spiroplasma transmission and pathogenicity, the genome of s. A mechanism is implicated toxic ribosomeinactivating proteins are common across spiroplasma model hosts and culturability position spiroplasma as an exceptional model for the study of. Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmasters page for free fun content. Spiroplasma kunkelii class mollicutes is the characteristically helical, wallless bacterium that causes corn. Several strains were cloned in triplicate from one primary pure culture.
Speciesspecific and crossreactive monoclonal antibodies. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the creative commons cc0 license. Infection and replication sites of spiroplasma kunkelii class. In successive leaves above those bearing first symptoms, the chlorotic spots coalesce to form stripes that extend towards the leaf. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological diseasemodifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma host interactions can be classified as commensal, pathogenic or mutualist. Spiroplasma kunkelii, nonhelical spiroplasmas, mollicutes. Complete genome sequence of spiroplasma kunkelii strain.
Spiroplasma kunkelii is a helical, wallless bacterium that causes corn stunt disease. Taxonomy of the species spiroplasma kunkelii whitcomb et al. Spiroplasma spp a plant, arthropod, animal and human. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,791,576bp circular chromosome and three plasmids of strain p40t. These strains, which are members of spiroplasma group i, did not show any crossreactions with flower spiroplasma strains bnr1 and pps1. Insect cell cultures in the study of attachment and pathogenicity of spiroplasmas and mycoplasmas.
Through injection into the leafhopper vector, it can be experimentally transmitted to periwinkle catharanthus roseus plants, in which it multiplies and induces severe symptoms. Nov 26, 2014 spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. Thirty six spiroplasma species have been identified. Small chlorotic spots appear 24 days later at the bases of newly developing leaves. The psci1 to 6 plasmids encode the membrane proteins known as s. Sequence comparisons of plasmids pbjso of spiroplasma citri. Jul 07, 2004 four trae homologs, designated trae1, trae2, trae3 and trae4, were identified and amplified from the genome of the leafhoppertransmitted corn stunt pathogen spiroplasma kunkelii and were predicted to encode membranebound adenine triphosphatases atpases. Defects of helicity and motility in the corn stunt. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. It has a spiral shape and moves in a corkscrew motion. Evolution of the spiroplasma p58 multigene family jana comer, 1jacqueline fletcher,2 robert e.
Spiroplasma shares the simple metabolism, parasitic lifestyle, friedegg colony morphology and small genome of other mollicutes, but has a distinctive helical morphology, unlike mycoplasma. We do not use these to store personal information about you. Despite the strong similarities between their replication regions, these plasmids coexist in the spiroplasma cells, indicating that they are mutually compatible. Sequence comparisons of plasmids pbjso of spiroplasma. Certain species are pathogenic, under experimental conditions, for a variety of suckling rodents rats, mice. Multiple strains of the heritable bacterium, spiroplasma, protect insects against infection by natural enemies. This information will facilitate studies of spiroplasma pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to transkingdom parasitism in plants and insect vectors. Most spiroplasmas are found either in the gut or hemolymph of. Spiroplasma kunkelii represents a major economic risk, as corn production in the united states is. Symptoms top of page chlorosis of leaf margins is the first symptom of s. It is an obligate parasite, surviving in citrus or in a variety of other host plants, with no saprophytic phase.
Additionally, spiroplasma negatively impact occurrence or titer of defensive and other facultative symbionts in pea aphids 47 and drosophila. In the case of aphids, spiroplasma may not directly exclude other symbionts, rather the infrequency of cooccurrence in sampled individuals could be a reflection of the higher cost coinfections. Genome sequence of the drosophila melanogaster male. Fewer leafhoppers had css before and after parasitization compared with leafhoppers that only acquired the css. Insects are particularly rich sources of spiroplasmas. Four trae homologs, designated trae1, trae2, trae3 and trae4, were identified and amplified from the genome of the leafhoppertransmitted corn stunt pathogen spiroplasma kunkelii and were predicted to encode membranebound adenine triphosphatases atpases. Physical and genetic map of the spiroplasma kunkelii cr2. Pdf immunodoublediffusion serological relationships. A taxonomic genus within the family spiroplasmataceae mollicutes bacteria with a distinctive helical morphology. Complete genome sequence of spiroplasma citri strain r8a2t. Strain e275tt type strain was studied by using criteria proposed by the international committee on systematic bacteriology subcommittee on taxonomy of mollicutes for descriptions of new mollicute species. Defensive capabilities are broad, impacting parasitic nematodes, insects, and fungi. Evolution of the spiroplasma p58 multigene family usda. Some of the strains were helical in cell shape, some were nonhelical, and some were partially helical, consisting of helical and nonhelical regions in the same cell.
Taxonomy of the species spiroplasma kunkelii whitcomb et. Complete genome sequence of spiroplasma phoeniceum strain. The largest chromosomal contigs were positioned on the physical and genetic maps constructed from pulsedfield gel electrophoresis and southern blot hybridizations. This study evaluated the applicability of ddpcr as a quantitative detection tool for the spiroplasma citri, causal agent of.
The genus is classified within the class mollicutes. The insecttransmissible strain gii3 of spiroplasma citri contains plasmids psci16, five of which psci15 encode adhesinlike proteins and one psci6 encodes protein p32, which has been associated with insect transmissibility. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of s. Spiroplasma is a genus of wallless, lowgc, small grampositive bacteria of the internal contractile cytoskeleton, with helical morphology and motility. A 3yr study was conducted in californias southern san joaquin valley to determine the overwintering survival of the corn leafhopper, dalbulus.
Davis,3 and ulrich melcher,4 received 9 january 2006final 18 may 2006 published online. In adaptation to its phloeminhabiting parasitic lifestyle, the bacterium has undergone a reductive evolutionary process and, as a result, possesses a compact genome with a gene set approaching the minimal complement necessary for multiplication and pathogenesis. Complete genome sequence of spiroplasma kunkelii strain cr2. The parasitoid gonatopus bartletti reduces presence of plant. On serum free medium ld59, nonhelical strains of s. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. Further references and information were obtained from experts, citations within the. Pdf the genera mycoplasma and spiroplasma belong to the mollicutes, a group of grampositive firmicutes that lack a cell wall. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,463,926bp circular chromosome and four plasmids of strain cr23x. Corn leafhopper populations were sampled from november to march using yellow sticky cards, dvac suction samples, and. Assembling 20,000 sequencing reads generated seven circular.
Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, is restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in plants. Instead, bacterial cells were obtained by manual collection of hemolymph from infected female. This is the first report of nonhelical strains of s. Spiroplasma kunkelii spirkuoverview eppo global database. Plasmid psci6 from spiroplasma citri gii3 confers insect. Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, have a wide host range. Spiroplasma kunkelii class mollicutes is the characteristically helical, wallless bacterium that causes corn stunt disease. Application of droplet digital pcr for quantitative detection. Spiroplasma kunkelii causes corn stunt disease of zea mays l.
Sequences essential for transmission of spiroplasma citri by. Spiroplasma citri causes stubborn disease in citrus spp. In total, 144 712 nucleotides of nonredundant, highquality s. This information serves as a resource for comparative analyses of spiroplasmal adaptations to diverse ecological niches. Davis first author, research plant pathologist, florist and nursery crops laboratory. The spiralin genes from two phytopathogenic spiroplasmas, spiroplasma phoeniceum and spiroplasma kunkelii, were amplified by pcr, cloned, and sequenced. Further references and information were obtained from experts, citations within the references, as well as from gray literature. However, polymerase chain reaction showed that the presence survival of s. Application of droplet digital pcr for quantitative. Genome sequence of the drosophila melanogaster malekilling.
Spiroplasmas are helical motile filamentous, wallless and culturable mollicutes. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction ddpcr is a method for performing digital pcr that is based on wateroil emulsion droplet technology. Serum free medium ld59 was used for primary isolation of spiroplasma kunkelii corn stunt spiroplasma from diseased corn plants from mississippi. A genome sequence survey of the mollicute corn stunt. Mollicutes in midgut and malpighian tubules of the leafhopper dalbulus maidis. For a complete taxonomy, refer to the taxonomic outline of bacteria and archaea, release 7. Spiroplasma spp a plant, arthropod, animal and human pathogen. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This page was last edited on 26 december 2019, at 01. The phytopathogen spiroplasma phoeniceum was isolated from diseased plants of madagascar periwinkle catharanthus roseus l. Partial chromosome sequence of spiroplasma citri reveals. Spiroplasma kunkelii is a bacteriallike organism knows as a spiroplasma. Spiroplasma citri strains maroc r8a2t t type strain, c189, and c3b, corn stunt spiroplasma sp.
Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. The mollicute corn stunt spiroplasma spiroplasma kunkelii is a leafhoppertransmitted pathogen of maize. Identification and characterization of trae genes of. Isolation of spiroplasma citri membranes and characterization of membrane proteins by twodimensional gel electrophoresis. Spiroplasma definition of spiroplasma by the free dictionary. Saglio p, lhospital m, laflfche d, dupont g, bove jm, tully jg, freundt ea, 1973.1118 758 1308 479 707 402 848 38 485 310 1413 1033 463 1071 1495 43 585 1276 1500 1485 513 1000 1340 733 514 298 1432 586 344 1138 196 188 1101 1250 1133